Recently, I was studying the book of Titus and came upon an interesting discussion of Titus 2:10 in the book on Greek grammar that I used in seminary. This discussion was valuable because it challenged the common translation of this verse.
The book suggested that the proper translation of this verse would support a Lordship view of salvation. The author maintains that Paul is saying that true faith results in good works that are demonstrated in the life of a genuine believer. I had never heard Titus 2:10 used in the debate between Lordship salvation and the Free Grace perspective. As such, I believe a closer look at it would be beneficial for the readers of the JOTGES. Certain lessons can also be learned from such a study.
In this article, I will discuss the common translation and interpretation of Titus 2:10. Then, I will look at the argument for a different way of translating it. Finally, I will discuss how it applies to the issue of saving faith and the lessons we can learn from this example.
II. THE COMMON VIEW OF TITUS 2:10
When we look at Titus 2:10 and how it is understood, we find that there is a general consensus. This consensus is based upon an almost universally accepted translation of the verse.
A. The Translation
The KJV is representative of how this verse is commonly translated. It reads:
Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. (emphasis added)
The part of the verse in question involves the words, “shewing all good fidelity.” The Greek word for “fidelity” is the common word for “faith” in the NT (pistin). According to the leading Greek lexicon of the NT, one of the major meanings of the word is “the state of being one in whom confidence is placed.” It speaks of that person’s faithfulness, reliability, or fidelity in doing what is required or expected of them.1
The word “good” in the Greek (agathēn) is an adjective. Even though it is separated from the word “faith,” the KJV translates it as modifying the word. Hence, we have the translation “all good fidelity.”
Other translations follow this translation. Both the NET and NASB translate it “all good faith.” The HCSB takes the words “all good faith” to mean “utter faithfulness.” The NIV says the words refer to one who is “fully trusted.”
In summary, if we pick up any English translation of the NT, we find that the words “good” and “faith” go together. They describe one who is reliable or faithful. That is the way commentaries understand the words as well.
B. A Survey of Commentaries
Titus 2:10 is found in a discussion by Paul on the topic of slaves who are Christians and how they should conduct themselves. In v 9, the Apostle says that slaves are to be obedient to their own masters. They are to please their masters in all things, and not talk back to them.
As with the case of the translation of v 10, there is basic uniformity as to what this verse means.2 Taking 2:9-10 together, Hiebert maintains that v 9 deals with the attitude of the slave. They are to have a good attitude towards their station in life, and adopt this attitude voluntarily.3
This attitude makes grumbling unacceptable, as well as a sullen disposition. Such an attitude makes one eager to please, regardless of one’s status.4
In v 10, Paul moves to the actions of the slave. They are not to steal or use any “tricks of the trade” to hurt their owner financially. They are to show “good faith” by being trustworthy in every matter trusted to them, as long as what their master wants them to do is not sinful. This kind of action and attitude makes the message of grace attractive to those who observe the slaves doing them.5
Quinn says that v 9 deals with verbal opposition to the master, while v 10 addresses concrete actions. He cites Pliny the Elder, among others, to show that it was common for slaves to steal from their masters in the first century. Onesimus, in the book of Philemon, is a Biblical example of such a practice.6
The point of these verses is that Christian slaves should not follow this common practice. The word “faith” means reliable. Such reliability is described as “good” because as Christian slaves they are not to do anything sinful while being reliable slaves.7 They are not to use the idea of being reliable slaves as an excuse for doing evil. In other words, the adjective “good” places a limit on their reliability.
In a similar vein, Stott says that the verbal aspect of obedience in v 9 refers to being respectful. “Good faith” is equivalent to showing they can be trusted.8
Whatever Paul is saying to slaves, such exhortations apply to all areas, as v 9 indicates.9 When it comes to stealing from your master, a slave could easily justify doing so. As a general rule, the financial rewards of being a slave did not reflect the amount of work done. In addition, a slave could conclude that the master had more than he needed or could ever use. Anything the slave pilfered would not be missed.10
A believing slave could also justify having a negative attitude, particularly if the master is also a believer. Such a slave would be taught about Christian liberty and equality within the Body of Christ. He could argue that willingly submitting to a Christian master as a slave would contradict such teaching.11 Guthrie points out that a believing slave on the island of Crete may have difficulty not stealing because, as Paul says, they came from an immoral background (Titus 1:12). Such a background might contribute to a new Christian who was a slave taking advantage of a believer’s freedom in Christ.12
III. TITUS 2:10 DOES NOT TEACH A LORDSHIP VIEW OF FAITH
In light of the way Titus 2:10 is translated in all English versions, it is difficult to see how this verse could be used to argue a Lordship view of faith. Such a view says that true Christian faith in Christ is demonstrated by obedience to Christ as Lord. A survey of the authors cited above, all of whom are more or less sympathetic with Lordship Salvation, bears this out. None of them see this verse as supporting such a view.
In Titus 2:1-10, Paul is giving instructions to Christians. He is not giving tests by which we can determine who is eternally saved or not. Hiebert points out that Paul is talking about the Christian life being a process, and not saying what will automatically happen.13 Knight says these slaves are indeed Christians, as are the others discussed in chapter two, but have a choice on how they conduct themselves.14 Stott also believes that these Christian slaves have a choice. Their lives can either add luster to the Gospel or not. The life of a Christian can either bring adornment to the Gospel or discredit it. If a Christian discredits the Gospel by how he lives, he gives no evidence of salvation, but that is possible for a Christian to do.15
Both Knight and Mounce agree the point here is not to demonstrate that one is genuinely saved, but to make the gospel attractive to others. The instructions to slaves deal with the issue of evangelism.16 Christian slaves have a responsibility to witness to others, especially their masters. They can possibly be used to lead them to Christ.17 Their behavior can assist in this area. But their behavior is changed, not because they are genuine believers, but through the “doctrine of God” as taught by the church (2:10).18
Of course, if the masters in question here are already believers, their salvation is not the goal of the slave’s Christ like behavior. By his exemplary conduct a slave can make Christian doctrine appear beautiful in the eyes of other onlookers.
Throughout chapter two, as Paul addresses different groups within the church, he gives admonitions and urges these believers to act in a certain way. He “exhorts” them to do so (v 6). This exhortation is implied throughout the chapter.19 They are commanded to do these things because such actions are not automatic.
In the verses that follow Titus 2:10 it is also clear that the behavior demanded of those in the church, including slaves, is not automatic. Believers have to be taught these things, and must deny what they naturally want to do (v 12). A Christian slave will not do what Paul exhorts him to without such teachings and self-denial.
Regardless of how v 10 is translated and understood, the context certainly favors the view that Paul is telling Christians how they should act. It will involve sound teaching within the church so that they know how to do that. He is not telling them how they will act. Even those who hold to a Lordship view of salvation do not see this context supporting that idea.
However, it has been held that the Greek of Titus 2:10 leads to a different translation. This translation, it is held, teaches the Lordship salvation view of the inevitability of good works.
IV. A DIFFERENT TRANSLATION OF TITUS 2:10
In his popular NT Greek grammar, Daniel Wallace argues that Titus 2:10 should be translated in a different way.20 He does so because of two grammatical points. The first issue is whether the verse has a double accusative of object-complement. The second involves the relation of an adjective to a noun in an anarthrous construction.
A. Double Accusative of Object-Complement
The point of contention involves the four words “showing all good fidelity” (NKJV). In the original Greek, there are four words as well. They appear in a different order:
Pasan (all) pistin (faith) enkeiknumenous (showing) agathēn (good)21
The words “faith” and “good” are in the accusative case. The common way of translating these words is to treat the word “good” as an adjective, modifying the word “faith,” since both are in the same case. This leads to the translation, “good faith” and thus, “showing all good faith.”
However, Wallace argues that the word “good” should not be treated as an adjective that modifies the word “faith.” Instead, it is part of a double accusative of object-complement construction. This construction is one in which a noun in the accusative (in this case “faith”) is the direct object of the verb (in this case “showing”). The other accusative (in this case “good”) complements the first accusative (“faith”). The second accusative can be a noun or, as in this case, an adjective. The second accusative says something about the first accusative, often with the verb “to be,” which must be supplied. This leads to the following translation:
Showing all faith to be good.22
On this grammatical point, Wallace offers a number of arguments.23 The first is that the Greek word “showing” takes an object-complement in Romans 2:15.24 In fact, it is an example of a verb that frequently takes an object-complement.
Another argument Wallace makes is that the word “good” is separated from the word “faith” by the verb/participle “showing.” It is extremely rare in the NT for an adjective to be positioned this way. But this is the normal position for a predicate adjective.25 Very simply, if the translation was “good faith” in Titus 2:10 we would expect the word “good” to be closer to the word “faith,” and not after the word “showing.”
Some say that because the word “faith” does not have an article (usually the English word “the”) it cannot be the object of the verb “showing” in a double accusative construction. However, Wallace points out that there are other examples in the NT where there is an object of the verb that does not have an article and still has an adjective that says something about that object, as Wallace argues here in Titus 2:10. And example would be John 9:1, where Jesus “saw a man which was blind from his birth.” The word “man” and “blind” are both in the accusative and “man” does not have an article.26 The verb “was” needs to be added between these accusatives.
On this last argument, Wallace has more to say. The fact that the word “faith” does not have an article is significant.
B. The Anarthrous Noun-Adjective Construction27
Titus 2:10 makes a nonequative statement. This simply means that the main verb is not “to be.” The main verb is “showing.”
In this verse, the anarthrous noun “faith” has the adjective “all” in front of it.28 The order in Titus 2:10 is: an adjective (all); followed by an anarthrous noun (faith); followed by another word (showing); followed by a second adjective (good). Wallace says that there are no instances where this order occurs in the NT where the second adjective modifies the anarthous noun. In other words, there are no examples in the NT where Titus 2:10 would lead to the translation “good faith.”29 This leads to the second option, which is, that the word “good” acts as a predicate: “faith that is good.”
When one considers that the verb “showing” does use accusative adjectives this way, the traditional way of translating Titus 2:10 needs to be questioned. Wallace states that the burden of proof is on those who would translate it “good faith.”30
V. EVALUATION OF A DIFFERENT TRANSLATION
Anytime one is confronted with a new way of looking at something, there is at first a reluctance to accept the new point of view. Many of us have quoted or read from Titus 2:10 and have become accustomed to the phrase “showing all good faith.”
However, all within the Free Grace movement have learned that sometimes our traditional way of seeing things are not Biblical. We need to be willing to let the text of the Bible speak for itself. Titus 2:10 may be such a case.
Wallace’s discussion on the grammatical points of the verse is enlightening. Even if one does not know Greek, the simple order of the words in the original would suggest that perhaps Wallace is correct.
The Greek grammatical arguments would at least lead one to conclude that the new translation is possible. In fact, one might conclude it is probable.
The most important question is: How would this new translation affect our interpretation of Titus 2:10? It is interesting that Mounce, himself a Greek scholar, makes note of Wallace’s translation. In Mounce’s commentary on Titus he follows the traditional understanding of the verse. He seems to consider the new translation a possibility but does not engage with it.31 Perhaps he did not see the differences as significant. However, for the readers of JOTGES, Wallace’s interpretation of the new translation is very significant.
VI. TITUS 2:10 DOESN’T SUPPORT LORDSHIP SALVATION
After suggesting a new translation for Titus 2:10, Wallace gives a reason why this new translation is important. He feels it supports a Lordship Salvation view of saving faith.
Wallace argues that the word “all” can be translated “genuine.” He holds that the word can have this meaning with abstract nouns, such as faith, and that Greek lexicons list this as a possibility.32 Paul, then, is speaking about what a “genuine” faith looks like.
For Wallace, a genuine faith is good in the sense that it is productive. He seems to be saying that “good” and “productive” are synonymous. The end of v 10 restates it in another way. Genuine faith results in adorning the doctrine of God. Wallace sees the two halves of the verse as being parallel. Both halves would be saying that slaves are to demonstrate that their faith is real and results in good behavior. Wallace maintains that this supports the idea that “saving faith does not fail, but even results in good works.”33
Using the context of the Pastoral Epistles as a whole, Wallace says that the use of the word “faith” in these books supports this. When faith is said to be genuine it is a faith that produces good works. He cites 2 Tim 3:15-17 and Titus 1:13-16 as examples.
This, however, is a little confusing. The lexicon he cites does not say the word “all” can mean “genuine.” Instead, it can signify the highest degree of something. If that is the meaning here it would mean not “genuine” faith, but “greatest” faith.
In addition, the word “good” and “productive” are not synonyms. Something can be productive but not necessarily good. One can easily think of things that are good but not necessarily productive.
It also is clear that in coming to his theological conclusion Wallace is not using grammatical arguments. He mainly argues from the context, but it is far from clear that that context supports a Lordship Salvation view of faith. To live in such a way that “adorns the doctrine of God” does not mean that such a life is automatic.
The use of the word “faith” in the Pastoral Epistles, as will be discussed below, can certainly be understood in a Free Grace context. Wallace argues that the “flow” of the argument of Titus 2:10 argues for a faith that automatically results in good works. But, it appears that the flow of the chapter strongly suggests something else.
All of the commentaries discussed above, even though they are generally agreeable with the tenets of Lordship Salvation, do not see the context of Titus 2 as discussing the automatic results of saving faith. Instead they all see it as one of exhorting what Christians should do.
For example, Paul tells slaves here that they should be “subject” to their masters (2:9). The same verb is used in reference to wives. They are to be subject to their husbands (2:5). This involves being “discreet, chaste, homemakers, good, and obedient.” To say that all Christian wives are automatically going to be these things strains credulity. To say that all Christian slaves will automatically serve their masters with a pleasant attitude, not talk back, and please their owners in every way strains it as well.
The context of chapter two deals with Christian living. The purpose of such living is not to show proof that one is eternally saved. There are other benefits when a Christian “adorns” his life in this way (2:10). Masters see the truth of Christian doctrine. Such living keeps the “word of God” from being “blasphemed” by others. In addition, others will have “no evil thing to say” about Christians (2:5, 8, 10). In other words, in Titus 2 Christian living has an impact on others.34
VII. PRACTICAL APPLICATION
If, as Wallace suggests, Titus 2:10 teaches that true saving faith results in a persevering faith that produces good works, there is a troubling application. One of the most disturbing aspects of Lordship Salvation is that it makes assurance of salvation impossible. It maintains that a true Christian cannot continue living a life of sin. However, since every Christian sins, there is always a question of how many sins it takes to “continue” in sin.
Even though Paul is talking about slaves in Titus 2:9-10, it is recognized that what he has to say applies to employees in general. It is very easy to apply Paul’s teaching and conclude that Christians should be good employees, regardless of their social status. To find support for Lordship Salvation in Titus 2:10 means that if a person is a true Christian, he will demonstrate it by how he performs at his job.
A “true” Christian, then, will have a good attitude about his work. A true Christian will not say bad things about his boss. A true Christian will not pilfer from his boss by coming in late, or leaving early. Many other examples could be given of what it means to be a good employee based upon what Paul says here. And of course, it does not matter what kind of boss the believer has or in what kind of employment situation he finds himself.
How many Christians can feel good about these tests of assurance? How many of us could be better employees in all of these areas? Particularly, how many young Christians, even teenagers, fail miserably in this area of Christian living? If one believes that Titus 2:10 is a test by which we can determine if we have “genuine” faith, and that we base the genuineness of that faith on our performance at our place of employment, this will result in a further reason to lose assurance of our eternal salvation.
Fortunately, even if we accept the new translation proposed by Wallace, there is no need to accept the idea it supports Lordship Salvation. The key is found in looking at the meaning of the word “faith” in the Pastoral Epistles.
VIII. FAITH IN THE PASTORAL EPISTLES
The word faith occurs 33 times in the Pastoral Epistles. A quick review of these occurrences indicate that perhaps five could refer to the faith that leads to eternal life, that is, the faith in Christ by which the Christian life begins. But even in these instances such an understanding is not clear (1 Tim 2:7; 1 Tim 5:8; 2 Tim 3:8; Titus 1:1, 4). However, in the vast majority of instances the word “faith” occurs in contexts in which it is clear that Paul is talking about faith as it relates to Christian living. This kind of faith is the faith that lives in such a way that the Christian believes in what the Word of God teaches.
Examples of this use of faith include 1 Tim 2:15, where Paul is talking about children. They are to “continue” in faith. In 1 Tim 3:13, deacons who serve well within in the church obtain great confidence in the “faith.” Paul wants Timothy to feed on sound doctrine in order to be nourished in the faith (1 Tim 4:6). In doing so, Timothy can be an example of faith (1 Tim 4:12).
From these examples we see that Paul speaks of a faith that involves obeying God’s Word, and of a faith that can grow. It is a faith that gets the believer through difficult times, as it believes in what God has said.
The question in Titus 2:10 is: What kind of faith is Paul referring to? Is it the faith that begins the Christian life, or is it the faith by which a Christian lives?
As stated above, Wallace believes that verses such as 2 Tim 3:15-17 and Titus 1:13-16 show that in the Pastoral Epistles when faith is genuine it produces good works. He takes the word faith in these instances as referring to the initial act of faith in Christ. He then says that Paul means basically the same thing in Titus 2:10 when he refers to faith. A genuine faith is “good” in that it produces works.
It is not clear, however, that the verses Wallace cites use the word faith in this way. In 2 Timothy 3, this faith is intimately related to the Word of God. The Word of God teaches, rebukes, and trains the Christian in order to do good works. It seems that Paul is talking about a faith that uses what God has revealed in that Word. In fact, Paul is talking about a faith he wants Timothy to have. Timothy was already a believer.
Titus 1 is less clear. But even here, Paul talks about being sound, or healthy, in faith (1:13). This faith is not referring to the initial act of faith. Therefore, there is no need to conclude from these verses, as Wallace does, that the initial act of faith always produces a life of enduring good works. The whole passage can certainly be understood in a Free Grace perspective.35
The real question, as far as this article is concerned, is what kind of faith Paul is describing in Titus 2. It is significant that in verse two Paul urges elderly Christian men to be “sound in faith.” They are encouraged to manifest love and patience in their lives as well. This clearly refers to living by faith. The significance lies in the fact that the word “faith” here does not refer to the initial act of faith in a Christian’s life. Titus 2:1-10 forms a unit. The next occurrence of the word faith occurs in the same section, in v 10.
IX. INTERPRETING TITUS 2:10
In Titus 2:1-10, Paul addresses different groups within the church. He tells each group how they are to conduct themselves. In order, he gives instructions to old men, old woman, young women, young men, and then to Titus, his lieutenant on the island of Crete. At the very beginning of these instructions Paul summarizes their goal. He wants the lives of each of these groups to display “sound doctrine” (v. 1).
The last group Paul deals with is slaves. They also are to live by certain standards. If we accept Wallace’s translation, he wants them to show that “all faith” is “good.”
As with the large majority of the occurrences of the word “faith” in the Pastoral Epistles, including the only other occurrence in this section (v. 2), Paul is talking about living by faith. Living by faith in what God’s Word teaches, or sound doctrine, is difficult. Perhaps it can be said that among the groups Paul addresses, it was particularly difficult for slaves.
Slaves were at the lower rung of society. They were often at the mercy of bad masters. It would be easy to resent their station in life. It would be easy to take advantage of any personal benefit a slave could acquire.
But Paul is telling them to conduct themselves by having faith in sound doctrine. They are to live their lives based upon what the Word of God says, and not in light of their current plight. In Eph 6:5-8, Paul gives very similar instructions to slaves. In those verses, Paul explains what is involved in a life of faith by a slave. A slave can conduct himself in this way, even in spite of life’s seeming injustice, because he knows that he will be rewarded by Christ when Christ returns.
The Christian slave who served his master in this manner would demonstrate that a life of such faith produces what is good. Others would be able to see the good that adorns such a life. His deeds would be like jewels that reflect the sound teachings of Christ. No doubt, some would be attracted to Christ by seeing such a life. A life of faith, even by a slave, shows what is good. It would also result in eternal rewards.
Anything that helps us understand God’s Word is welcomed. Often, such things challenge our traditions, such as how we translate a verse. Wallace’s grammatical discussion on Titus 2:10 is a case in point. In my opinion, Wallace accurately shows that Paul is not talking about a “good faith.” Instead, he is talking about a life of faith that demonstrates what is good.
That being said, one does not have to conclude that if a person is genuinely saved he will automatically live that kind of life. All the groups in Titus 2 are being exhorted to live that way because it is not automatic. But Paul sees all of them as Christians. Immediately before discussing Christian slaves, Paul exhorts Titus. Clearly, Paul saw Titus as a believer.
Whatever “group” we might find ourselves in, we should seek out sound doctrine from God’s Word. Such doctrine tells how we should conduct ourselves. We should then, through the power of the Spirit, live in light of that teaching. Every such life of faith shows forth what is good.
To an unbeliever, such a life is good because the unbeliever can see the doctrine of God’s Word at work right before their eyes. This could be used by the Spirit of God to draw such an unbeliever to faith. Titus 2 speaks of different groups within the church. If slaves trusted in God’s Word to live in the way Paul exhorts, other believers would see Christ at work in such lives and be encouraged. For the slaves themselves, such obedience would result in rewards in the Kingdom of God.
Such living is living by faith in what God reveals in His Word. It is far from automatic. However, all such faith is certainly good for everyone concerned.
1 Walter Bauer, W. F. Arndt, and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, ed. F. W. Danker (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 818.
2 One area of disagreement is whether the “masters” in question are believers or nonbelievers. See A. T. Hanson, The Pastoral Epistles, The New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1982), 182 and Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1976), 196. Hanson says the masters are not believers and Guthrie takes the opposite view. However, this does not impact the theme of this article.
3 D. Edmond Hiebert, Titus and Philemon (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1957), 54. Mounce agrees with this voluntary attitude and points out that the verb “submit” in verse nine is in the middle voice. See William D. Mounce, Pastoral Epistles, Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 46 (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2000), 415.
4 William Hendriksen, Exposition of the Pastoral Epistles (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1957), 369.
5 Ibid., 55.
6 Jerome D. Quinn, The Letter to Titus, Anchor Study Bible (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1988), 144-49. He cites Pliny the Elder, Naturalis historia 33.6.26-27.
8 John R. W. Stott, The Message of 1 Timothy and Titus: Guard the Truth (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1996), 191.
9 George W. Knight III, The Pastoral Epistles: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992), 314.
10 Ibid., 313.
11 Gordon H. Clark, The Pastoral Epistles (Jefferson, MD: The Trinity Foundation, 1983), 219.
12 Guthrie, Pastoral Epistles, 196.
13 Hiebert, Titus, 58.
14 Knight, Pastoral, 313.
15 Stott, Titus, 192.
16 Knight, Pastoral, 316; Mounce, Pastoral, 416; Hanson, Pastoral, 182.
17 R. Kent Hughes and Bryan Chapell, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: To Guard the Deposit (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2000), 333-34.
18 Clark, Pastoral, 219.
19 Hendrikson, Pastoral, 368.
20 Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar: Beyond the Basics (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 188-89, 312-13. He calls Titus 2:10 a “debatable” passage in regards to these grammatical issues, but it seems fairly clear that he thinks the English versions have mistranslated the verse.
21 Not all Greek manuscripts have this order. Wallace says that the other options, however, are not viable as reflecting the original. For readers of the JOTGES it might be of interest that the Majority Text, which Wallace does not accept, reverses the order of “faith” and “all”: “faith all showing good.” Even if this order of the words was accepted by Wallace, it would have little impact on his view. See Wallace, Grammar, 188 and Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, eds., The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1985).
22 Wallace, Grammar, 188.
23 Ibid., 188-89.
24 Rom 2:15: “they show the work of the law written in their hearts,” where the words “work” and “written” are the two accusatives. They show the work of the law to be written in their hearts. The translation is not, “they show the ‘written word’ in their hearts.”
25 Wallace, Grammar, 188-89. An example is Acts 4:16, where the Jewish leaders say, in reference the healing of a paralyzed man by Peter, “for that indeed a notable miracle hath been done by them is manifest.” The word “manifest” is an accusative predicate adjective, occurring after the verb “done” and associated with the word “miracle.”
26 Ibid., 189.
27 An anathrous noun is one that does not have an article in front of it, often translated by the word “the” in English.
28 Wallace is using the order found in the Critical Text of the NT. As noted in footnote 21, the word order changes slightly in the Majority Text. But it is doubtful that the word order would substantially change Wallace’s argument here.
29 Wallace, Grammar, 312.
31 Mounce, Pastoral, 416.
32 Wallace, Grammar, 313. He cites BDAG, s.v. pas, 1.a.d.
34 Knight, Pastoral, 316.
35 Zane C. Hodges, The Gospel Under Siege: Faith and Works in Tension (Dallas, TX: Redencion Viva, 1992), 105, 111; Robert N. Wilkin, “Titus,” in The Grace New Testament Commentary (Denton, TX: Grace Evangelical Society, 2010), 2:1016-17.